Soft Skills and Psychological Well-being: A Study on Italian Rural and Urban NEETs

https://doi.org/10.46841/RCV.2021.04.02

Authors

Keywords:

NEET's, rural, urban, soft skills, psychological well-being

Abstract

Soft skills retain a certain importance in fully understanding the NEET phenomenon: however, only few researchers have focused on them specifically. The aim of this work is two-fold: a) to detect the differences in terms of soft skills and psychological well-being between urban and rural NEETs; and b) to evaluate which of the soft skills analysed may be predictors of psychological well-being. A sample of young 6998 18−34 years old representative of the Italian population was used. Although gender and educational attainment play a key role in determining NEET status, the degree of urbanisation must be considered because it appears to influence the well-being and perceived soft skills of a group of NEETs. The present study shows that females with low educational attainment residing in rural areas have lower levels of well-being than females with low educational attainment residing in urban areas. A similar influence exists in relation to one particular soft skill: positive vision. Furthermore, soft skills predict psychological well-being wherein degree of urbanisation and gender seems to play a determining role. Policies should, therefore, consider these issues in their design and implementation phases.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Adriano Mauro Ellena, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

Address: Largo gemelli 1, 20123, Milano, Italia.
Email: adrianomauro.ellena@unicatt.it

Elena Marta, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore

Address: Largo Gemelli 1, 20123, Milano, Italia.
Email: elena.marta@unicatt.it

Francisco Simões, Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (Iscte), CIS-Iscte

Address: Cidade Universitária de Lisboa, Av. das Forças Armadas, 1649-026 Lisboa, Portugal.
Email: francisco.simoes@iscte-iul.pt

Maria Fernandes-Jesus, York St John University

Address: Lord Mayor's Walk, York, YO31 7EX, York, UK.
Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (Iscte) CIS-Iscte
Cidade Universitária de Lisboa, Av. das Forças Armadas, 1649−026, Lisboa, Portugal.
Email: m.fernandesjesus@yorksj.ac.uk

Claudia Petrescu, Research Institute for the Quality of Life, Romanian Academy

Address: 13 September Road no. 13, District 5, 050711, Bucharest, Romania.
Email: claudia.petrescu@iccv.ro

References

Alfieri, Sara, and Adriano Mauro Ellena. 2020. COST CA18213 Rural NEETs in Italy: 2009/2019 Overview. National Report, COST CA18213.

Capogna, Stefania. 2019. “Empowerment organizzativo e competenze trasversali tra retorica e virtù [Organizational empowerment and soft skills between rethoric and virtue].ˮ Sviluppo & Organizzazione 82−91.

Carlotto, Gaetano. 2015. Soft skills: con-vincere con le competenze trasversali e raggiungere i propri obiettivi [Soft skills: convincing with soft skills and achieving your goals]. Milano: Franco Angeli.

Carrosio, Giovanni. 2019. I margini al centro: l'Italia delle aree interne tra fragilità e innovazione [Margins at the center: Italy's inland areas between fragility and innovation]. Roma: Donzelli editore.

Chiteji, Ngina. 2010. “Time Preference, Noncognitive Skills and Well Being across the Life Course: Do Noncognitive Skills Encourage Healthy Behavior? ˮ American Economic Review 100 (2): 200−204.

Cimatti, Barbara. 2016. “Definition, development, assessment of soft skills and their role for the quality of organizations and enterprisesˮ International Journal of quality research 10 (1): 97−130.

de Almeida, Amanda Nunes, and Francisco Simões. 2020. "Professional development perspectives across gender and age groups of under‐qualified rural NEETs." Journal of community psychology. 48 (5): 1620−1636. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.22356.

Ellena, Adriano Mauro, Alessandro Rosina, and Emiliano Sironi. 2021. “Essere Neet dopo i 30 anni: caratteristiche e fragilità.” In La condizione giovanile in Italia: Rapporto Giovani 2021, by Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo, 179−207. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Engelberg, S. 2015. “A developmental Perspective on Soft Skills.” “Soft Skills and their role in employability – New perspectives in teaching, assessment and certification”. Bertinoro, FC, Italy.

Eurostat. 2021. www.ec.europa.eu. June. Accessed July 28, 2021. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Statistics_on_young_people_neither_in_employment_nor_in_education_or_training.

FRS Recruitment. 2017. What are soft skills and hard skills? https://www.frsrecruitment.com/blog/career-tips-and-advice/what-are-soft-skills-and-hard-skills/.

Gabriel-Petit, Pabini. 2014. 13 human qualities you must have to succeed in work and life. https://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2014/09/13-human-qualities-you-must-have-to-succeed-in-work-and-life.php.

Goleman, Daniel. 2009. Working with emotional intelligence. London, England: Bloomsbury.

Marta, Elena. 2012. Costruire cittadinanza. L’esperienza del servizio civile in Italia [Building Citizenship. The civil service experience in Italy]. Brescia: La Scuola.

Marzana, Daniela, and Samuele Poy. 2019. “La riattivazione dei NEET: alcune evidenze dal progetto Neetwork.” In La condizione giovanile in Italia: Rapporto Giovani 2019 [The youth condition in Italy: Youth Report 2019]. by Istituto Giuseppe Toniolo. Bologna: Il Mulino.

Mascherini, Massimiliano. 2017. “Il quadro dei giovani NEET in Europa: caratteristiche e costi socio-economici.” In Una generazione in panchina: Da NEET a risorsa per il paese [A Generation on the Bench: From NEET to Resource for the Country], by Sara Alfieri and Emiliano Sironi, 17−28. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.

Mascherini, Massimiliano, and Stefanie Ledermaier. 2016. Exploring the diversity of NEETs. https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/it/publications/report/2016/labour-market-social-policies/exploring-the-diversity-of-neets.

Ministero del lavoro e delle politiche sociali. 2020. “X rapporto annuale. Gli stranieri nel mercato del lavoro in Italia. [X annual report. Foreigners in the labor market in Italy.].» https://www.lavoro.gov.it/documenti-e-norme/studi-e-statis.

Palumbo, Claudio. 2013a. “Benessere individuale, organizzativo e sociale attraverso lo sviluppo delle competenze trasversaliˮ “il Dialogo”. Bimestrale delle ACLI (Svizzera).

Poy, Samuele, and Giuseppe Scaratti. 2021. “Sviluppo delle competenze e politiche per l’occupabilità dei giovani. Buone pratiche da un caso studio [Skills development and youth employability policies. Best practices from a case study].” Impresa Sociale 1: 82−91. https://doi.org/10.7425/IS.2021.01.09

Quaranta, Giovanni, Rosanna Salvia, Luca Salvati, Velia De Paola, Rosa Coluzzi, Vito Imbrenda, e Tiziana Simoniello. 2020. “Long‐term impacts of grazing management on land degradation in a rural community of Southern Italy: Depopulation mattersˮ Land Degradation & Development. 2379−2394.

Rosina, Alessandro. 2015. NEET. Giovani che non studiano e non lavorano [NEET. Young people who do not study and do not work]. Milano: Vita e Pensiero.

Sadler, Katy, Jane Akister, and Sarah Burch. 2015. “Who are the young people who are not in education, employment or training? An application of the risk factors to a rural area in the UK.” International Social Work 58 (4): 508−520.

Salmela-Aro, Katariina, Hannu Savolainen, and Leena Holopainen. 2009. “Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-lagged Longitudinal Studies.” Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 38 (10): 1316–1327. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9334-3

Segrin, Chris, and Melyssa Taylor. 2007. “Positive interpersonal relationships mediate the association between social skills and psychological well-being.” Personality and individual differences. 43 (4): 637−646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.01.017.

Simões, Francisco, Ana Meneses, Rui Luís, and Rui Drumonde. 2017. “NEETs in a rural region of Southern Europe: perceived self-efficacy, perceived barriers, educational expectations, and vocational expectations.” Journal of Youth Studies. 20 (9): 1109−1126. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2017.1311403.

Simões, Francisco, and Nazaré Brito do Rio. 2020. “How to increase rural NEETs professional involvement in agriculture? The roles of youth representations and vocational training packages improvement.” Journal of Rural Studies. 75: 9−19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.02.007.

Wheeler, Ronald. 2016. “Soft skills-the importance of cultivating emotional intelligence.” AALL Spectrum, Boston, MA: Boston University School of Law. 28−31.

Whetten, David, and Kim Cameron. 2014. Developing management skills: Global edition. . Boston, MA: Prentice Hall.

Yan, Li, Yang Yinghong, Siu Man Lui, Mary Whiteside, and Komla Tsey. 2018. Teaching “soft skills” to university students in China: The feasibility of an Australian approach. Educational Studies. 44: 11−17.

Published

2021-10-29

How to Cite

Mauro Ellena, . A., Marta, E., Simões, F., Fernandes-Jesus, M., & Petrescu, C. (2021). Soft Skills and Psychological Well-being: A Study on Italian Rural and Urban NEETs. Calitatea Vieții, 32(4), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.46841/RCV.2021.04.02

Issue

Section

Studies

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>